Both the creation of trade and the diversion of trade have a decisive impact on the establishment of a free trade agreement. The creation of trade will result in a shift in consumption from a cost producer to a low-cost producer, which will lead to an expansion of trade. On the other hand, trade diversion will mean that trade will move from a low-cost producer outside the zone to a more expensive producer in the free trade agreement. [16] Such offshoring will not benefit consumers under the free trade agreement, which will be deprived of the opportunity to purchase cheaper imported goods. However, economists note that trade diversion does not always harm the overall national well-being: it can even improve national well-being as a whole if the volume of misappropriated trade is low. [17] A free trade agreement (FTA) or treaty is an agreement contrary to international law establishing a free trade area between cooperating states. Free trade agreements, a form of trade pacts, set tariffs and tariffs on imports and exports by countries, with the aim of reducing or removing barriers to trade and thereby promoting international trade. [1] These agreements “generally focus on a chapter with preferential tariff treatment,” but they often contain “trade facilitation and regulatory clauses in areas such as investment, intellectual property, public procurement, technical standards, and health and plant health issues.” [2] The trade agreement database provided by the ITC market access map. Given that hundreds of free trade agreements are currently in force and are being negotiated (approximately 800 according to the rules of the intermediary of origin, including non-reciprocal trade agreements), it is important for businesses and policy makers to keep their status in mind. There are a number of free trade agreement custodians available at national, regional or international level. Among the most important are the database on Latin American free trade agreements, established by the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI) [23], the database managed by the Asian Regional Integration Center (ARIC) with information agreements concluded by Asian countries[24] and the portal on free trade negotiations and agreements of the European Union. [25] Another important type of trade agreement is the Trade and Investment Framework Agreement. TIFA provides a framework for governments to discuss and resolve trade and investment issues at an early stage.

These arrangements are also a means of identifying and working, if necessary, for capacity building. Economists have tried to assess the extent to which free trade agreements can be considered public goods. First, they deal with a key element of free trade agreements, the system of on-board tribunals, which act as arbiters in international trade disputes. These serve as a clarification of existing statutes and international economic policies, as confirmed by trade agreements. [18] It should be noted that the qualification of the original criteria presents a difference in treatment between the inputs of origin and those outside the free trade agreement.